CSS Pseudo-classes

CSS Pseudo-classes

CSS pseudo-classes are used to add special effects to some selectors.

Syntax

The syntax of pseudo-classes:

selector:pseudo-class {property:value;}

CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-classes:

selector.class:pseudo-class {property:value;}

Anchor Pseudo-classes

Links can be displayed in different ways in a CSS-supporting browser:

a:link {color:#FF0000;} /* unvisited link */
a:visited {color:#00FF00;} /* visited link */
a:hover {color:#FF00FF;} /* mouse over link */
a:active {color:#0000FF;} /* selected link */

Note: a:hover MUST come after a:link and a:visited in the CSS definition in order to be effective!!

Note: a:active MUST come after a:hover in the CSS definition in order to be effective!!

Note: Pseudo-class names are not case-sensitive.

Pseudo-classes and CSS Classes

Pseudo-classes can be combined with CSS classes:

a.red:visited {color:#FF0000;}

If the link in the example above has been visited, it will be displayed in red.

CSS – The :first-child Pseudo-class

The :first-child pseudo-class matches a specified element that is the first child of another element.

Note: For :first-child to work in IE8 and earlier, a <!DOCTYPE> must be declared.

Match the first <p> element

In the following example, the selector matches any <p> element that is the first child of any element:

<html>
<head>
<style type=”text/css”>
p:first-child
{
color:blue;
}
</style>
</head><body>
<p>I am a strong man.</p>
<p>I am a strong man.</p>
</body>
</html>

Match the first <i> element in all <p> elements:

In the following example, the selector matches the first <i> element in all <p> elements:

<html>
<head>
<style type=”text/css”>
p > i:first-child
{
font-weight:bold;
}
</style>
</head><body>
<p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p>
<p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p>
</body>
</html>

Match all <i> elements in all first child <p> elements

In the following example, the selector matches all <i> elements in <p> elements that are the first child of another element:

<html>
<head>
<style type=”text/css”>
p:first-child i
{
color:blue;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p>
<p>I am a <i>strong</i> man. I am a <i>strong</i> man.</p>
</body>
</html>

CSS – The :lang Pseudo-class

The :lang pseudo-class allows you to define special rules for different languages.

Note: IE8 supports the :lang pseudo-class only if a is specified.

In the example below, the :lang class defines the quotation marks for q elements with lang=”no”:

<html>
<head>
<style type=”text/css”>
q:lang(no) {quotes: “~” “~”;}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<p>Some text <q lang=”no”>A quote in a paragraph</q> Some text.</p>
</body>
</html>

Examples

Add different styles to hyperlinks
This example demonstrates how to add other styles to hyperlinks.
Use of :focus
This example demonstrates how to use the :focus pseudo-class.