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HTML Uniform Resource Locators

The web got its spidery name from the plentiful connections between web sites. These connections are made using anchor tags to create links. Text, Images, and Forms may be used to create these links.

HTML Links

In an HTML document when you click on a link, an underlying <a> tag points to a place (an address) on the Web with an href attribute value like this: <a href=”lastpage.htm”>Last Page</a>.

Hypertext Reference (href)

The href -Hypertext Reference- attribute defines reference that the link refers to. Basically this is where the user will be taken if they wish to click this link.

Hypertext references can be Internal, Local, or Global.

  • Internal – Links to anchors on the current page
  • Local – Links to other pages within your domain
  • Global – Links to other domains outside of your site
Internal – href=”#anchorname”
Local     – href=”../pics/picturefile.jpg”
Global   – href=”http://www.paktutorial.com/

Uniform Resource Locators

Something called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is used to address a document (or other data) on the World Wide Web. A full Web address like this: http://www.paktutorial.com/html/ follows these syntax rules:
scheme://host.domain:port/path/filename
The scheme is defining the type of Internet service. The most common type is http.
The domain is defining the Internet domain name like academictutorials.com.
The host is defining the domain host. If omitted, the default host for http is www.
The :port is defining the port number at the host. The port number is normally omitted. The default port number for http is 80.
The path is defining a path (a sub directory) at the server. If the path is omitted, the resource (the document) must be located at the root directory of the Web site.
The filename is defining the name of a document. The default filename might be default.asp, or index.HTML or something else depending on the settings of the Web server.

URL Schemes

Some examples of the most common schemes can be found below:
Schemes Access
file a file on your local PC
ftp a file on an FTP server
http a file on a World Wide Web Server
gopher a file on a Gopher server
news a Usenet newsgroup
telnet a Telnet connection
WAIS a file on a WAIS server

Accessing a Newsgroup

The following HTML code:
<a href=”news:alt.HTML”>HTML Newsgroup</a>
creates a link to a newsgroup like this HTML Newsgroup. HTML Newsgroup

Link to your Mail system

The following HTML code:
<a href=”mailto:someone@paktutorial.com“>someone@paktutorial.com</a>
creates a link to your own mail system like this:
info@paktutorial.com

A URL is another word for a web address. A URL can be composed of words, such as “paktutorial.com”, or an Internet Protocol (IP) address: 192.68.20.50. Most people enter the name of the website when surfing, because names are easier to remember than numbers.


Common URL Schemes

The table below lists some common schemes:

Scheme Short for…. Which pages will the scheme be used for…
http HyperText Transfer Protocol Common web pages starts with http://. Not encrypted
https Secure HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure web pages. All information exchanged are encrypted
ftp File Transfer Protocol For downloading or uploading files to a website. Useful for domain maintenance
file A file on your computer
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